The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Chogha-Zanbil.
Chogha-Zanbil is an ancient Elamite complex in Iran’s southern Khuzestan province. It is one of the few extant ziggurats outside Mesopotamia.
It is 25 km west of Dezful and 230 km north of Abadan, UNESCO reported.
It was built about 1250 BC by King Untash-Napirisha to honor the great god Inshushinak.
The current name of Chogha-Zanbil corresponds with the ancient city of Dur Untash, dominating the course of he Ab-e Diz, a tributary of Karoun River.
The city was founded as a religious capital during the Elamite period by Untash-Napirisha (1275-1240 BC) in a site halfway between Anshan and Susa.
Roman Ghirshman carried out the complete exploration of the site from 1951 to 1962. The site contains the best preserved and the largest of all the ziggurats of Mesopotamia.
The first enclosure contains the Temenos. In origin, the temple located at the center was a square building, dedicated to the Sumerian god Inshushinak. This temple was then converted into a ziggurat of which it constitutes the first storey.
Access was by means of a vaulted staircase, invisible from outside, unlike the squatter Mesopotamian ziggurats, which were equipped with three external staircases.
Today the ziggurat is no more than 25 meters high, the last two stages, which originally rose to a height of 60 meters, having been destroyed.
On the northwestern side of the ziggurat, a group of temples was dedicated to minor divinities, Ishnikarab and Kiririsha.
An oval wall surrounded the temples and the ziggurat. The second enclosure, trapezoidal in form, delimits a vast, almost empty zone.
In the third enclosure, only three palaces were built and a temple, near the Royal Gate, with a large interior court. This third enclosure was to protect the town of Dur Untash, the houses of which were never built.
The Untash-Gal Palace (13th century BC) was discovered, separated from the Temenos.
In spite of the destruction attributed to Assyrians, a whole series of heads, statuettes, animals and amulets were found and the remains of two panels in ivory mosaic.
Several vaulted tombs were discovered in the basement of the royal residence, with evidence of cremation. Nearby was a temple dedicated to Nusku, the god of fire.
To supply the population of the city with water, a channel about 50 km long was linked to a reservoir outside the northern rampart.
From there, nine conduits carried the filtered water to a basin arranged inside the rampart. Dur Untash was given up by the Elamite kings in the 12th century BC in Susa.
They transported all the treasures of Chogha-Zanbil to Susa where they were used to decorate the recently restored temples. In 640 BC, Dur Untash was entirely destroyed by the Assyrian king Assurbanipal, a few years after his conquest of Susa.
Some scholars speculate, based on the large number of temples and sanctuaries at Chogha-Zanbil, that Untash-Napirisha attempted to create a new religious center (possibly intended to replace Susa) which would unite the gods of both highland and lowland Elam at one site.
The ziggurat is considered the best preserved example in the world.
In 1979, Chogha-Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
Kerman Plans Tourism Events
Translated by Leila Imani
Kerman province enjoys significant potentials in the field of tourism, said the head of the province’s cultural heritage, handicrafts and tourism department.
Mohammad Hussein Tajali added that Kerman, which is located in a desert area, is a four-season province, Mehr News Agency reported.
Most cities of the province have moderate and warm weather in the coldest time of winter and this helps attracts a large number of tourists to the region.
Tajali said introducing the tourism potentials of the province is necessary and holding various festivals will help attract tourists to warm regions of the country during winter.
Referring to holding Safari Festival in Lut Desert during the Ten-Day Dawn ceremonies marking the anniversary of the victory of Islamic Revolution, he said a desert camp will be inaugurated in the region for tourists to facilitate desert tours.
Holding Starry Night Observation and other ceremonies in the city of Shahdad will help provide an opportunity for introducing the tourism capacity of Kerman province.
The official noted that three 3-star hotels will be inaugurated in the city of Bam, adding that one of them named Kourosh has been built by the private sector with the support of the province’s cultural heritage department.
Tajali said participating in Kish International Tourism Festival, planning tourism festival in Lut Desert in the Iranian month of Esfand (Feb. 19-March 20), and holding Yalda Night Festival in Pars Hotel and Sirjan Rally are among activities undertaken by the department to boost tourism sector of the province.
Iranian Registers Inventions
An Iranian artist from the city of Shiraz, Fars province, has registered two inventions in the Invention Registration Department of Iran’s Industrial Property Office.
Announcing the above, Hemmat Mohammadi, the head of the province’s cultural heritage, handicrafts and tourism department, said that the inventions registered by Rahman Soleymani, who is a potter and ceramic artist, include wooden and metal pens used for engraving archeological calligraphy on clay, leather and wood.
Referring to the important status of industrial property right, which comprises a major part of intellectual property right, Mohammadi said all handicraft artists of Fars province who have inventions, especially in the field of production technique, can refer to the website of the provincial cultural heritage department and register and protect their intellectual property rights.
By Ahmad Jami
Each who has seen your beauty fine
Utters honestly, ‘I have seen the divine.’
Everywhere your lovers wait for grace,
Remove your veil, reveal your face!
I am in the ocean and an ocean is in me;
This is the experience of one who can see.
He that leaps into the river of unity,
He speaks of union with his beloved’s beauty.
As long as one tress-lip
Of the hair of your existence
I fear the sect
You claim “I broke
The idol of Illusion –
But I fear
Your manifesto is itself
Butter, 1 tablespoon
Olive oil, 1 tablespoon
Chicken, 4 large pieces
Potatoes, 2 large (peeled and cut into 2-cm pieces)
Garlic, 4 cloves (peeled)
Shallots, 4 small (chopped)
Fresh tarragon, 3 tablespoons (chopped)
Chicken stock, 1 cup
Dijon mustard, 2 tablespoons
Preheat the oven to 220°C. Place butter and oil in a non-stick frying pan over medium heat. Add chicken and brown for two minutes each side until golden. Transfer to a medium baking dish (it is important that the pan is big enough so that there is plenty of room).
Add potatoes to the frying pan and cook until light golden. (They don’t need to be cooked through yet.) Arrange them around the chicken with the garlic and shallots. Squeeze lemon over the chicken and season.
Sprinkle over half the tarragon and roast in the oven for 30 minutes. Transfer the chicken and vegetables to a serving platter.
Place the roasting pan on the stovetop over medium heat. Add the stock and mustard and cook, stirring, for four minutes until reduced. Pour over the chicken and garnish with remaining tarragon. Serve with a green salad.
Health Benefits of Chicken
Chicken are a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals. During preparation, remove the skin from chicken meat, unless the dish requires frying.
The healthiest ways of cooking chicken are steaming, roasting and baking. If you fry them, you will be adding a lot of unhealthy fats and calories to the meal.
Calories and Fat
A typical 85 grams of chicken thigh, with the skin removed, contain about 100 calories and 3 grams of fat per piece. It is, therefore, higher in calories and fat than chicken breast, and the latter may be a better alternative if you are on a calorie-restricted diet. The amount of calories and fat in skinless chicken thighs is still lower than that found in most red meat products, such as beef.
The same skinless chicken thigh contains about 16 grams of protein--32 percent of your recommended daily intake. The protein in chicken, like that of other meats, contains all the essential amino acids and is more easily absorbed than the protein from plant products.
Protein is important for the growth and maintenance of muscles, organs, bones, skin, nails and hair. Consume about 0.8 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.
The “McCance and Widdowson’s Composition of Foods” reports that chicken thighs are a good source of niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid. Niacin supports a healthy digestive and immune system, and helps your body convert food into energy. Vitamin B-6 is important for amino acid and protein metabolism, nervous system and red blood cell function. Pantothenic acid is another B vitamin involved in the production of energy from foods and in the synthesis of essential fatty acids and hormones.
Iranian handicrafts worth $670 million were exported over the past eight months, particularly to Persian Gulf countries.